Diabetes Related Literacy/Numeracy Scales
1. SKILLD (Diabetes Knowledge Scale)
This 10 item scale can be used to assess diabetes knowledge among patients with low literacy skills. A manuscript detailing the validity of this scale is available at: Rothman RL, Pignone M, Malone R, Bryant B, Wolfe C. The Spoken Knowledge in Low-Literacy in Diabetes (SKILLD) Test: A new scale of diabetes knowledge. The Diabetes Educator, Mar-Apr;31(2):215-24.
2. PDSMS (Diabetes Self-Efficacy Scale)
This short 8 item scale can be used to assess perceived diabetes self-efficacy among patients with diabetes. A manuscript detailing the validity of this scale is available at: Wallston KA, Rothman RL, Cherrington A. Psychometric Properties of the Perceived Diabetes Self-Management Scale (PDSMS). Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 2007; In Press.
Numeracy Test (DNT)
This 43 item scale can be used to assess numeracy skills essential for diabetes self-management. Performance on the DNT correlates with diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy, behaviors, and glyecmic control. More information about the scale is available at: Huizinga MM, Elasy TA, Wallston KA, et al. Development and validation of the Diabetes Numeracy Test (DNT). BMC Health Serv Res. 2008;8:96, AND Cavanaugh, K., Huizinga, M. M., Wallston, K. A., Gebretsadik, T., Shintani, A., Davis, D., Gregory, R, Fuchs, L. S., Malone, R., Cherrington, A, Pignone, M. P., Dewalt, D. A., Elasy, T. A., and Rothman, R. L. Association of Numeracy and Diabetes Control. Annals of Internal Medicine 148. 5-20-2008.
Numeracy Test-15 (DNT-15)
This 15 item scale is a shortened version of the DNT. More information is available at: Huizinga MM, Elasy TA, Wallston KA, et al. Development and validation of the Diabetes Numeracy Test (DNT). BMC Health Serv Res. 2008;8:96
This 15 item scale is a Spanish version of the DNT15.
6. Diabetes Numeracy Test - 5
This 5 item scale is a shortened version of the DNT and DNT-15.
Diabetes Educational Materials
1. Diabetes Literacy and Numeracy Education Toolkit
This toolkit includes over 24 chapters that can used in educating patients with diabetes — particularly those with poor literacy or numeracy skills. Providers can use different sections of the toolkit as they see fit. Section A includes instructions about how to use the toolkit. Section B includes the toolkit. Section 3 includes a "Scoops List" for patients started on the "Scoops" method for diet management.
These materials were designed to improve educational interactions between diabetes providers and their patients. These materials are intended only for use by qualified health professionals in conjunction with their patients. Professionals opting to use these materials take responsibility for any liability issues related to their use. Specific recommendations to patients by providers may vary from what is included in these materials.
If you have questions about the above studies, please contact Anne Sizemore, anne.a.sizemore@Vanderbilt.Edu.
The Center for Diabetes Translation Research is
supported by NIH grant DK092986.
Please acknowledge this in your publications.