A growing body of evidence indicates that regulation of protein-serine/threonine phosphatase 2A (PP2A) involves its association with other cellular and viral proteins in multiprotein complexes. PP2A-containing protein complexes may exist that contribute to PP2A's important regulatory role in many cellular processes. To identify such protein complexes, PP2A was partially purified from rat brain soluble extracts following treatment with a reversible cross-linker to stabilize large molecular size forms of PP2A. Compared with native (uncross-linked) PP2A, cross-linked PP2A revealed an enrichment of p70 S6 kinase and two p21-activated kinases (PAK1 and PAK3) in the PP2A complex, indicating these kinases may associate with PP2A. The existence of protein kinase-PP2A complexes in rat brain soluble extracts was further substantiated by the following results: 1) independent immunoprecipitation of the kinases revealed that PP2A co-precipitated with p70 S6 kinase and the two PAK isoforms; 2) glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins of p70 S6 kinase and PAK3 each isolated PP2A; and 3) PAK3 and p70 S6 kinase bound to microcystin-Sepharose (an affinity resin for PP2A-PP1). Cumulatively, these findings provide evidence for association of PP2A with p70 S6 kinase, PAK1, and PAK3 in the context of the cellular environment. Moreover, together with the recent reports describing associations of PP2A with Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (Westphal, R. S., Anderson, K. A., Means, A. R., and Wadzinski, B. E. (1998) Science 280, 1258-1261) and casein kinase IIalpha (Heriche, J. K., Lebrin, F., Rabilloud, T., Leroy, D., Chambaz, E. M., and Goldberg, Y. (1997) Science 276, 952-955), the present data provide compelling evidence for the existence of protein kinase-PP2A signaling modules as a new paradigm for the control of various intracellular signaling cascades.