BACKGROUND - Adhesion formation after abdominal operations causes significant morbidity.
METHODS - Adhesion formation in pigs was compared after placement of prosthetic mesh during celiotomy (group 1), laparoscopy with large incision (group 2), and laparoscopy (group 3). After peritoneum was excised, polypropylene mesh was fixed to the abdominal wall, then to the opposite abdominal wall in the preperitoneal space followed by peritoneal closure. Adhesion area, grade, and vascularity were measured.
RESULTS - More adhesions (p < 0.02) covered intraperitoneal mesh (7.57 +/- 1.89 cm2) than covered reperitonealized mesh (2.16 +/- 1.13 cm2), and adhesion grade was significantly greater (p < 0.02). Adhesion areas were significantly greater in groups 1 and 2 than in group 3 (p = 0.001 and 0.03, respectively). Adhesion grade was significantly greater in groups 1 and 2 than in group 3 (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively). Groups 1 and 2 had more vascular adhesions than group 3 (p < 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively)
CONCLUSIONS - A foreign body within the peritoneum stimulates more numerous and denser adhesions. Tissue trauma distant from the site of adhesions increases their formation. A major advantage of laparoscopic surgery is decreased adhesion formation.