Integrins mediate cell adhesion and can induce different cellular responses, including changes in intracellular pH, changes and oscillation in intracellular free calcium, and protein phosphorylation on tyrosine. During bone resorption, the integrin alphav beta3 regulates adhesion of osteoclasts to bone extracellular matrix proteins, such us osteopontin (Opn). Adhesion via alphav beta3 is followed by osteoclast polarization onto the bone surface and by the onset of bone resorption. To characterize these events at the molecular level, we investigated the state of activation of alphav beta3 on the human osteoclast-like cell line GCT23 using the monoclonal antibody AP5 which binds to and can induce, under low calcium conditions, activated alphav beta3. By flow cytometry, approximately 50% of alphav beta3 on the surface of the osteoclast-like cell line GCT23 was reactive with AP5 and was therefore in the activated state. Incubation with AP5 in the presence of low calcium concentrations increased activated alphav beta3 to 90-100%. Activation of alphav beta3 increased the efficiency of GCT23 adhesion to Opn by 2-fold. Furthermore, haptotactic migration on Opn was also enhanced about 40% compared to control. We propose that changes in the activation state of alphav beta3 may be a regulation point for osteoclasts during bone resorption.
Copyright 1998 Academic Press.