Gadolinium-bearing red cells as blood pool MRI contrast agents.

Johnson KM, Tao JZ, Kennan RP, Gore JC
Magn Reson Med. 1998 40 (1): 133-42

PMID: 9660563 · DOI:10.1002/mrm.1910400118

Human and rat red blood cells (RBCs) were loaded with gadolinium DTPA dimeglumine using an osmotic pulse technique to create a blood pool contrast agent for MRI. The resulting packed red cells contained 30.9 +/- 3.3 (1 SD) mmol Gd/liter for humans and 24.7 +/- 3.5 (1 SD) mmol Gd/liter for rats. Longitudinal relaxation rate constant of human RBCs increased from 2.0 +/- 0.1 to 145.6 +/- 36.2 s(-1); the transverse relaxation rate constant increased from 6.8 +/- 1.2 to 562 +/- 410 s(-1). For rat RBCs, R1 increased from 1.45 +/- 0.15 to 84.8 +/- 23.9 s(-1); R2 increased from 7.1 +/- 0.64 to 247 +/- 158 s(-1). Affinity for oxygen was slightly reduced (control P50 = 22.3 +/- 2.3 versus experimental P50 = 27.3 +/- 1.3, P < 0.01), as was mechanical deformability. No drop in relaxivities was seen after 5 days of storage. The apparent volume of distribution was 0.0164 +/- 0.003 liter/kg, biologic half-life 4.38 +/- 0.34 h, and total plasma clearance 0.003 +/- 0.0006 liter/kg/h. Compared with Gd-DTPA "free" in the plasma, tissue enhancement from RBCs was initially lower but was much prolonged. Preparation is simple enough to be reproduced by most laboratories.

MeSH Terms (14)

Animals Contrast Media Erythrocytes Female Gadolinium DTPA Half-Life Humans Image Enhancement In Vitro Techniques Magnetic Resonance Imaging Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Rats Rats, Sprague-Dawley Reference Values

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