Effects of endotoxin on arachidonic acid (AA)-induced hepatic glycogenolysis were examined in perfused rat liver. In normal rat liver, infusion of AA increased oxygen consumption and glucose production concurrently. In rats injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 6 h before, AA increased glucose production but suppressed oxygen consumption. The changes in LPS-injected rat were abolished by a thromboxane (Tx) A2 receptor antagonist. The release of Tx B2 by AA increased after LPS-injection. These results suggest that priming of hepatic macrophage by endotoxin in vivo enhances Tx synthesis, resulting in modulating hepatic glycogenolysis.