Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen associated with gastritis, peptic ulceration, and gastric carcinoma. The bacteria express a strong urease activity which is known to be essential for colonization of gnotobiotic pigs and nude mice. UreA and UreB, two structural subunits of the active enzyme, were expressed in the attenuated Salmonella typhimurium live vaccine SL3261 strain. Evaluation of protection against H. pylori was performed in Balb/c mice by oral immunization with a single dose of the vaccine strain. Five weeks after immunization, mice were challenged orally three times with a mouse-adapted H. pylori wild type strain and, six weeks later, mice were sacrificed to determine H. pylori infection by detection of urease activity from the antral region of the mouse stomachs. In several independent experiments, we observed 100% infection with H. pylori in the non-immunized mice and no infection (100% protection) in the mice immunized with S. typhimurium expressing recombinant UreA and UreB. Specific humoral and mucosal antibody responses against UreA and UreB were observed in mice immunized as indicated by western blots and ELISA assays. These data shows that oral immunization of mice with urease subunits delivered by an attenuated Salmonella strain induced a specific immune response and protected mice against H. pylori colonization. Single oral dose immunization with UreA and UreB delivered by a live Salmonella vaccine vector appears to be an attractive candidate for human vaccination against H. pylori infection. In addition, this model will aid to elucidate the effective protection mechanisms against H. pylori in the gastric mucosa.