Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) couple to heterotrimeric G-proteins and regulate cell excitability and synaptic transmission in the CNS. Considerable effort has been focused on understanding the cellular and biochemical mechanisms that underlie regulation of signaling by G-proteins and their linked receptors, including the mGluRs. Recent findings demonstrate that regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins act as effector antagonists and GTPase-activating proteins for Galpha subunits to inhibit cellular responses by G-protein-coupled receptors. RGS4 blocks Gq activation of phospholipase Cbeta and is expressed broadly in rat brain. The group I mGluRs (mGluRs 1 and 5) couple to Gq pathways to regulate several effectors in the CNS. We examined the capacity of RGS4 to regulate group I mGluR responses. In Xenopus oocytes, purified RGS4 virtually abolishes the mGluR1a- and mGluR5a-mediated but not the inositol trisphospate-mediated activation of a calcium-dependent chloride current. Additionally, RGS4 markedly attenuates the mGluR5-mediated inhibition of potassium currents in hippocampal CA1 neurons. This inhibition is dose-dependent and occurs at concentrations that are virtually identical to those required for inhibition of phospholipase C activity in NG108-15 membranes and reconstituted systems using purified proteins. These findings demonstrate that RGS4 can modulate mGluR responses in neurons, and they highlight a previously unknown mechanism for regulation of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling in the CNS.