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Two adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) that had been housed together for 4 months died within 2 weeks of each other after brief illnesses. Monkey No. 1 presented with collapse, watery stool, and hypothermia and died overnight. Monkey No. 2 presented with dyspnea, nasal discharge, leukopenia, and hypoproteinemia and was euthanized after 2 days. Both animals had peritoneal effusions, massive necrosis of pharyngeal, esophageal, and gastric mucosa, and multifocal hepatic and pancreatic necrosis. Monkey No. 2 also had lingual ulcers and locally extensive necrosis of spleen, adrenal glands, and lymph nodes. Large numbers of eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were present in epithelial and syncytial cells adjoining the necrotic foci in Monkey No. 2 but were absent in Monkey No. 1. Monkey No. 1 seroconverted to cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1, commonly known as herpes B) in the month before death. CHV-1 was isolated from a sample of stomach from Monkey No. 2, and electron microscopy of liver from this animal demonstrated herpesvirus particles within hepatocytes. Both animals were seropositive for simian type D retrovirus, and the virus was cultured from the liver of Monkey No. 2. A diagnosis of disseminated CHV-1 infection was made, possibly occurring secondary to immunosuppression due to infection with simian type D retrovirus. Although a high percentage of cynomolgus monkeys are apparently infected with CHV-1, disseminated disease is rare. Because infection with CHV-1 in humans is associated with a high fatality rate, familiarity with the lesions of disseminated infection with this virus is important.