Past studies have shown that schizophrenic men tend to be impaired on the olfactory identification task. We examined individual differences in the olfactory function in relation to schizotypy. Healthy individuals who might carry latent liability for schizophrenia participated in olfactory identification and acuity tasks. Psychometrically ascertained schizotypic men showed deficits on the olfactory identification task but not on the olfactory acuity task. The olfactory identification function partly depended on the menstrual cycle in women. But further systematic research is needed to clarify the possible role of estrogen.