Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 1 (MEN I), is an autosomal dominant syndrome of selected endocrine neoplasms whose causative gene, a suspected tumor suppressor, has been localized to chromosome 11q13, but has not been identified. Recently, the HNP36 cDNA was identified as a novel growth factor responsive gene of undetermined biological function that is expressed in the pituitary and parathyroid glands. In studies seeking the function of the HNP36 gene product, the gene was localized by fluorescence in situ hybridization within the 11q13 segment. Further analysis of radiation-reduced hybrid DNAs and chromosome 11-specific YAC clones established that the HNP36 gene is within 80 kb of D11S913, a marker tightly linked to the MEN1 gene. Consequently, the HNP36 gene was studied as a candidate for the MEN1 gene. The human HNP36 gene was cloned and determined to consist of 12 exons. Expression of the HNP36 gene from pituitary and parathyroid tissue and four patient tumors or lymphoblasts was confirmed by RT-PCR amplification of the coding sequences, and HNP36 transcripts were analyzed for mutations. All tissues expressed three HNP36 gene transcripts that result from alternative splicing and appear to encode related, but distinct, proteins. However, DNA sequence determination of the RT-PCR products from MEN I-associated tumors found no deletions and identified a single nucleotide difference that may be a polymorphism. Thus, mutations in the coding segments of the HNP36 gene are not the cause of the MEN I syndrome. Nevertheless, the assignment of the HNP36 gene to 11q13 and identification of new potential gene products provides a novel growth-regulated genetic candidate for other disorders whose genes map to this locus.