Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) is an autosomal recessive disorder that presents with pleiotropic manifestations including impaired skeletal growth and cellular immunity. It is most prevalent among two founder populations, the Old Order Amish in the USA and the Finns. The gene has been localized to 9p13 by linkage analysis and linkage disequilibrium mapping. A statistically significant deficiency of affected members resulting in a lower than expected segregation ratio has been reported in the Amish, but was not found in a previous study in Finnish CHH families. Reduced penetrance was the mechanism suggested in the Amish, but could not be verified by haplotype analyses performed after the assignment of the CHH gene. Here we have carried out segregation analysis of 101 Finnish CHH families, but again, evidence of a significant deficiency of affected members was not found. Nevertheless, among 54 uniplex families, 2 patients with CHH and uniparental disomy (UPD) for chromosome 9 were discovered. UPD might contribute to low segregation ratios by increasing the number of families with only 1 affected individual. These observations show that UPD may occur in an unexpectedly high number of the patients and should be taken into account in the genetic counselling and prenatal diagnostics of CHH families.