Bone marrow and peripheral blood from a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patient with trisomy 8 and associated systemic vasculitis was investigated for clonal lymphoid lineage involvement using simultaneous metaphase and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunocytochemistry with antibodies against CD13 (granulocytic), glycophorin A (GPA, erythroid), and the lymphocytic antigens CD3. CD5, CD20, and CD22. Trisomy 8 was detected in 55% of CD13+, 40% of GPA+, 6% of CD5+, and 5% of CD20/22+, but not in CD3+ cells. In a complementary experiment using interphase FISH on bone marrow cells sorted by flow cytometry, 13% of CD5/CD19 double-positive cells (76% purity) were found to be trisomic. The results indicate the existence of a small CD5-positive B-lymphoid clone as part of the MDS process in this patient. Since CD5/19-positive cells have been proposed to be autoantibody producing, this finding might be a clue to the pathogenesis underlying the propensity for MDS patients to develop immune-mediated complications.