This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of combined perioperative anti-CD4 and human (h)CTLA4Ig therapy in preventing allorejection of small bowel transplantation in high-responder Lewis rat recipients of ACI grafts. Anti-CD4 (5 mg/kg x 4 days) or hCTLA4Ig (0.5 mg/rat x 2 days) therapy alone delayed, but did not prevent, allograft rejection after small bowel transplantation of ACI into Lewis rats. All grafts were rejected in 18 and 10 days, respectively. However, a regimen of anti-CD4 (5 mg/kg x 4 days) combined with hCTLA4Ig (0.5 mg/rat x 2 days) allowed indefinite survival of ACI small bowel allografts. Second donor-matched heart grafts were permanently accepted, whereas third-party (Sprague-Dawley) heart allografts were rejected by the tolerant recipients. These data suggest that these two reagents produced a synergistic effect in preventing allorejection of small bowel transplantation.