The use of antibody therapy for the treatment of infections and inflammatory disease is well established. Unfortunately, clinical studies of antiendotoxin and anti-TNF monoclonal antibodies have failed to show clear physiological or survival benefit. Little information is available regarding the effect of antibodies to cytokines other than TNF in human sepsis. Limited pre-clinical data indicate that IL-6 antibodies may abrogate the effects of endotoxin infusion, but no human studies have been performed. Although both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies have the potential to protect septic humans, at this time it is the polyclonal antibodies that have shown the greatest promise. Each type of antibody possesses specific advantages and limitations, the ultimate effectiveness of which will need to be proven in large randomized clinical trials.