Optimal immunization of neonates against disease caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) probably will require multiple doses of a vaccine containing viruses of both subgroups A and B. Live subgroup B RSV mutants were generated containing multiple attenuating mutations, ts (temperature-sensitive) and non-ts (host range), that were introduced by prolonged passage in cell culture or by chemical mutagenesis. The cold-passaged (cp)-52 mutant was restricted in replication compared to wild type virus in rodents and nonhuman primates. In addition, the attenuation phenotype of cp-52 was stable after prolonged replication in immunosuppressed rodents. One or two ts mutations were then introduced into the cp-52 mutant to generate additional candidate vaccine strains that were more attenuated in vivo than the cp-52 parental virus. Tests in humans are being done to determine if one or more of the RSV B-1 mutants exhibit a satisfactory balance between attenuation and immunogenicity.