Extended resection of pulmonary metastases by pneumonectomy or by pulmonary resection en bloc with chest wall or other thoracic structures (diaphragm, pericardium, superior vena cava) is infrequently performed as survival benefit is presumed low. Between 1981 and 1992, 38 patients underwent extended resection for pulmonary metastases (24 men, 14 women; average age, 48 years) from various primary neoplasms. Thirty-three patients (33/38, 87%) had complete resection. Five-year actuarial survival was 25.4%. Mortality was 5.3% (2/38) and occurred in patients undergoing pneumonectomy (2/19, 10.5%). Nineteen patients underwent pneumonectomy, and 19 patients had other assorted resections: pulmonary resection en bloc with chest wall in 11 and pulmonary resection en bloc with other thoracic structures in 8. Actuarial median survival (median, 27 months) did not differ between patients having pneumonectomy and those having pulmonary resection en bloc with chest wall or other thoracic structures. Initial disease-free interval (median) was no different between those patients undergoing pneumonectomy (32 months) or other type resection (35 months; p = 0.16). Median survival for extended resection as the initial operation for pulmonary metastases was 28 months compared with 14 months for all others (p = 0.095). Pneumonectomy for pulmonary metastases may be performed with operative risk equivalent to pneumonectomy for primary bronchogenic carcinoma. Patients may safely undergo extended resection of pulmonary metastases by pneumonectomy or in continuity with chest wall or other thoracic structures. Despite advanced localized metastatic disease, some patients achieve long-term survival after pneumonectomy and extended resection for pulmonary metastases.