The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system.

Burns KD, Homma T, Harris RC
Semin Nephrol. 1993 13 (1): 13-30

PMID: 8434183

In this article, we have discussed the localization of components of the renal renin-angiotensin system, as well as the existing information on the regulation of this axis and the effects of Ang II on renal function. All the components of the renin-angiotensin system are present in both fetal and adult kidney. In the adult kidney, renin is principally localized to jg cells of the distal afferent arteriole, where release is stimulated by increases in intracellular cAMP and inhibited by increases in cytosolic calcium. Four distinct stimuli mediating renin release are (1) NaCl sensed at the macula densa, (2) the sympathetic nervous system, (3) humoral factors, with Ang II, vasopressin, endothelin, and adenosine inhibiting renin release, and (4) changes in intrarenal blood pressure. Alterations in renal renin gene expression have been reported in pathophysiological states, such as salt depletion, diabetes mellitus, ureteral obstruction, Bartter's syndrome, and with high protein feeding. The highest renal concentrations of mRNA for the renin substrate angiotensinogen are found in the PT, where the protein is localized to subapical granules. Both salt depletion and androgens upregulate renal angiotensinogen mRNA. Of interest, renal angiotensinogen mRNA levels are lower in SHR than in normotensive WKY rats. As with angiotensinogen, renal ACE is mainly localized to the PT, with highest concentration on the brush border. The mechanisms of regulation of both renal angiotensinogen and ACE require further study. Using recently developed specific nonpeptide Ang II receptor antagonists, it appears that adult renal Ang II receptors are principally of the AT1 class, whereas fetal kidney Ang II receptors are of the AT2 subtype. By binding to AT1 receptors, Ang II exerts constrictive effects on both afferent and efferent arterioles, with increased effect reported on efferent arterioles. Glomerular Ang II receptors are localized to mesangial cells, mediating contractile responses resulting in changes in glomerular surface area and Kf, and potentially regulating mesangial sieving and phagocytosis. These receptors are reduced with salt restriction or in experimental diabetes. The highest concentrations of tubular Ang II receptors are found in PT, on both brush border and basolateral membranes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

MeSH Terms (8)

Angiotensinogen Animals Humans Kidney Receptors, Angiotensin Renin Renin-Angiotensin System RNA, Messenger

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