A history of peptic ulcer disease is frequently cited as a contraindication to the use of reserpine. However, the risk of ulcer disease associated with the use of reserpine at current therapeutic doses is unknown. To address this question, the authors conducted a nested case-control study of the association between reserpine use and hospitalizations for peptic ulcer disease in elderly Tennessee Medicaid enrollees. When compared with that of nonusers of reserpine, the relative risk of hospitalization for peptic ulcer disease was 0.8 (95% CI, 0.6-1.0) among current users and 0.8 (95% CI, 0.5-1.3) among former users. The authors' data provide evidence that reserpine is not associated with ulcer disease in elderly persons and suggest that a history of ulcer disease need not be a contraindication to the use of this drug.