Many malignancies appear to occur with increased frequency and aggressive patterns of spread in patients seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The relationship between HIV infection and cervical neoplasia suggests that these patients present with more advanced disease and demonstrate poor response to therapy. To date, there have been no reported cases of ovarian cancer with concomitant HIV infection. We describe a young, gravid woman with an advanced ovarian carcinoma diagnosed at the time of delivery. Following poor response to cytoreductive surgery and initial chemotherapy, she was found to be HIV-seropositive. She received multiple chemotherapeutic regimens and experienced significant complications associated with her treatment and HIV infection. She progressively deteriorated and died within 13 months of diagnosis. Based on these findings and experience with other HIV-associated malignancies, it is apparent that the conventional approach to therapy is inadequate to treat the advanced and more aggressive form of disease seen in women infected with HIV.