In a population-based case-control study of endometrial cancer, we interviewed 268 cases and an equal number of matched controls regarding physical activity at work and outside of work. We also obtained self-ratings of overall physical activity levels. The results showed that nonretired women holding sedentary jobs or those reporting sedentary life-styles were at somewhat increased risk of endometrial cancer. The associations remained unchanged after adjustment for caloric intake and body mass index. Although an effect of physical inactivity on endometrial cancer risk is biologically plausible, our results show some inconsistencies, such as a lack of elevation in risk among women who were physically inactive outside of work.