Transformation of chicken embryo cells by oncogenic forms of pp60src (e.g., pp60v-src or pp60527F) is linked with a concomitant increase in the steady-state levels of tyrosine-phosphorylated cellular proteins. Activated forms of the Src protein-tyrosine kinase stably associate with tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, including a protein of 110 kDa, pp110. Previous reports have established that stable complex formation between pp110 and pp60src requires the structural integrity of the Src SH2 and SH3 domains, whereas tyrosine phosphorylation of pp110 requires only the structural integrity of the SH3 domain. In normal chicken embryo cells, pp110 colocalizes with actin stress filaments, and in Src-transformed cells, pp110 is found associated with podosomes (rosettes). Here, we report the identification and characterization of cDNAs encoding pp110. The predicted open reading frame encodes a polypeptide of 635 amino acids which exhibits little sequence similarity with other protein sequences present in the available sequence data bases. Thus, pp110 is a distinctive cytoskeleton-associated protein. On the basis of its association with actin stress filaments, we propose the term AFAP-110, for actin filament-associated protein of 110 kDa. In vitro analysis of AFAP-110 binding to bacterium-encoded glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins revealed that AFAP-110 present in normal cell extracts binds efficiently to Src SH3/SH2-containing fusion proteins, less efficiently to Src SH3-containing proteins, and poorly to SH2-containing fusion proteins. In contrast, AFAP-110 in Src-transformed cell extracts bound to GST-SH3/SH2 and GST-SH2 fusion proteins. Analysis of AFAP-110 cDNA sequences revealed the presence of sequence motifs predicted to bind to SH2 and SH3 domains, respectively. We suggest that AFAP-110 may represent a cellular protein capable of interacting with SH3-containing proteins and, upon tyrosine phosphorylation, binds tightly to SH2-containing proteins, such as pp60src or pp59fyn. The potential roles of AFAP-110 as an SH3/SH2 cytoskeletal binding protein are discussed.