Previously by selection and inbreeding of Wistar rats susceptible or resistant to the cataractogenic effect of galactose the S and R rat strains differing in the intensity of hexose transport into the animal cells were developed. High level of OH-radical generation and enhanced lipid peroxidation are revealed in the liver and myocardium of the S rats in contrast to the R rats. Data are obtained supporting the view that enhanced generation of OH-radicals within the S rat tissues is due to oxidation and autooxidation of the abundant amounts of monosacharides intensely accumulating in the rat cells. In spite of continuous inbreeding for more than 40 generations and a high rate of homozygosity, numerous DNA rearrangements are revealed in the S rat genomes. Fragility of the S rat cell membranes is detected. Cataracts and other lens lesions, emphysema, tumors, cardiomyopathy-like changes in the myocardium, scoliosis, brain disfunctions are characteristic of the S rats, as well as low fertility and short life-span indicative of premature aging.