A human genomic clone for a novel fifth member of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) family, NHE5 (gene symbol SLC9A5), has been isolated and partially sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of two exons, containing 154 codons, exhibits 59-73% identity to the other members of the NHE family, with closest similarity to NHE3. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that the NHE5 gene is expressed in brain, testis, spleen, and skeletal muscle. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of a cosmid containing NHE5 to human metaphase chromosomes localized the NHE5 gene to the cytogenetic interval 16q21-q22. A panel of somatic cell hybrids containing various portions of chromosome 16 was used to refine further the placement of NHE5 within band 16q22.1. A polymorphic dinucleotide (GT/CA)n repeat contained in the NHE5 cosmid was identified and developed into a microsatellite PCR marker. This was typed in a subset of the CEPH (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain) families to place it on a genetic map of the human genome. Pairwise linkage analysis of this marker showed that it was linked to marker D16S421 with a maximal lod score of 35.21 at a recombination fraction (theta) of 0.000, in complete concordance with its chromosomal localization by physical mapping. Multipoint linkage analysis placed NHE5 between the flanking markers D16S421 and D16S512. The cloning of this new member of the sodium hydrogen exchanger family, its chromosomal localization, and the discovery of a polymorphic marker for it now make it feasible to study the possible involvement of this gene in disorders of Na+/H+ transport.