Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a heterogeneous disorder that appears to be characterized by a primary defect in insulin secretion. Mutations in an unknown locus (MODY1) on chromosome 20 and the glucokinase gene (MODY2) on chromosome 7 can cause this form of non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Recent genetic studies have identified a third locus on chromosome 12 (MODY3) that is linked to MODY in a group of French families. We have identified three families from Denmark, Germany, and the U.S. (Michigan) showing evidence of linkage with MODY3 and a family from Japan showing suggestive evidence. Analysis of key recombinants in these families localized MODY3 to a 5-cM interval between the markers D12S86 and D12S807/D12S820.