Isolation and characterization of a highly attenuated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine candidate by mutagenesis of the incompletely attenuated RSV A2 ts-1 NG-1 mutant virus.

Hsu KH, Crowe JE, Lubeck MD, Davis AR, Hung PP, Chanock RM, Murphy BR
Vaccine. 1995 13 (5): 509-15

PMID: 7543716 · DOI:10.1016/0264-410x(94)00002-5

Ts-1, a temperature sensitive (ts) mutant of RSV, was previously derived from RSV A2 virus by mutagenesis with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Ts-1 was attenuated for adult volunteers and seropositive children but retained a low level of virulence in seronegative infant vaccinees as indicated by the occurrence of upper respiratory tract disease. Ts-1 NG-1, a more defective derivative of ts-1, was produced by mutagenesis of ts-1 with nitrosoguanidine. However, ts-1 NG-1 still retained a low level of virulence for the upper respiratory tract and showed some genetic instability in chimpanzees. With renewed interest in the goal of developing a live, attenuated RSV vaccine, we have now attempted to further attenuate ts-1 NG-1 by mutagenesis with 5-FU and 5-azacytidine. Four mutants that are phenotypically different from the ts-1 NG-1 parental virus were identified. Each of the four mutants was more restricted in replication in BALB/c mice compared with the ts-1 NG-1 parental virus. One of the ts-1 NG-1 derivatives, termed A-20-4, which showed the lowest (35 degrees C) in vitro shutoff temperature and which was also completely restricted in replication in BALB/c mice, was selected for further evaluation in seronegative chimpanzees. A-20-4 did not cause rhinorrhea in chimpanzees but induced detectable titers of serum RSV neutralizing antibodies in 2 of 4 chimpanzees. Apparent complete protection to subsequent challenge with wild-type RSV was observed in each of the four chimpanzees previously immunized with A-20-4.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

MeSH Terms (20)

Animals Azacitidine Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Chlorocebus aethiops Female Fluorouracil Male Mice Mice, Inbred BALB C Mutagenesis Pan troglodytes Phenotype Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections Temperature Tumor Cells, Cultured Vaccines, Attenuated Vero Cells Viral Vaccines Virus Replication

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