Thrombocytopenia is a common accompaniment of disseminated histoplasmosis. The yeast form of Histoplasma capsulatum does not directly injure human platelets freed of plasma. Preincubation of H. capsulatum with plasma enabled it to induce prompt platelet aggregation and selective release of [3H]serotonin without release of lysosomal beta-glucuronidase and the cytoplasmic marker, lactate dehydrogenase. Platelet aggregation was mediated by adenosine diphosphate, as shown by the blocking of the reaction by apyrase. Indomethacin inhibited both aggregation and serotonin release, indicating their dependence on prostaglandin synthesis by platelets. Plasma IgG conferred [3H]serotonin-releasing activity after complexing with yeasts, and plasma fibrinogen was necessary for platelet aggregation; classical and alternative complement pathways were not involved. The interaction of H. capsulatum with human platelets, mediated by IgG and fibrinogen without complement, represents a new attribute of this fungal pathogen and may contribute to thrombocytopenia complicating disseminated histoplasmosis.