The high molecular weight folate binding protein of rat liver cytosol has been purified to apparent homogeneity. Purification was achieved by using a combination of gel filtration, O-(diethylaminoethyl)cellulose chromatography, and affinity chromatography. This folate binding protein was initially identified during purification by an in vivo labeling procedure involving intraperitoneal injection of [3H]folic acid prior to sacrifice and subsequently by its ability to bind naturally reduced [3H]folate polyglutamates in vitro. A molecular weight of 210 000 was estimated by gel chromatography. This is distinct from the trifunctional formyl-methenyl-methylene synthetase of rat liver which has a molecular weight of 225 000. Sodium dodecyl sulfate electrophoresis revealed a single band with a molecular weight of about 100 000 which suggests the native protein is composed of two identical subunits. The partially purified protein contains bound tetrahydropteroylpentaglutamate.