The plasma and 24-hr urinary levels of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate and of cyclic guanosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cGMP) were determined for 19 healthy normal patients, 54 patients with six types of nonneoplastic diseases (cholelithiasis, peptic ulcer, coronary heart disease, hypertension, regional ileitis, and cirrhosis), and 54 patients with five types of neoplastic disease (cancers of the lung, colon, and breast, acute myelocyte leukemia, and Hodgkin's disease). The cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate levels of urine and plasma in normal subjects, in noncancer subjects, and in cancer subjects did not differ significantly. The cGMP levels in the noncancer group were similarly unchanged from those in the normal group. However, mean cGMP levels in the urine and plasma of patients with neoplastic diseases were, respectively, 2- and 3-fold greater than the normal values (p less than 0.005 for urine and p less than 0.05 for plasma). Pharmacokinetic studies with [3H]cGMP in nine healthy controls and 15 patients with neoplasia showed that the mean production rate of this nucleotide in patients with metastatic cancer was elevated when compared to normal patients, but many values fell within the normal range. In acute leukemia, the production rate was seven times normal, with four of five patients having values clearly outside the normal range. The plasma clearance rate in patients with neoplasia was not decreased when compared to that in normal patients. It is proposed that an increased production rate, rather than any change in plasma clearance, accounts for the increased levels of cGMP in the plasma and urine of some patients with neoplastic disease.