Abnormal expression or function of several classes of kinases contribute to the development of many types of solid and hematologic malignancies. TKs (tyrosine kinases) in particular play a role in tumor growth, metastasis, neovascularization, suppression of immune surveillance, and drug resistance. TKIs (tyrosine kinase inhibitors) targeted to TKs such as BCR-ABL1, VEGF receptors, PDGF receptors, have transformed therapy of certain forms of cancer by providing excellent efficacy with relatively low adverse event rates. Yet some of these agents have been associated with high rates of vascular events, presumably from prothrombotic complications that result in myocardial infarction, stroke, and critical limb ischemia. This review describes the scope of the problem evidenced by clinical experience with some of the most commonly used TKIs, with a focus on TKIs targeted to the BCR-ABL1 (breakpoint cluster region-Abelson 1) translocation. We also discuss the potential mechanisms responsible for arterial thrombotic complications that could lead to mitigation strategies or unique TK targeting strategies to reduce adverse event rates without compromising efficacy.