The impact of sex on gene expression across human tissues.

Oliva M, Muñoz-Aguirre M, Kim-Hellmuth S, Wucher V, Gewirtz ADH, Cotter DJ, Parsana P, Kasela S, Balliu B, Viñuela A, Castel SE, Mohammadi P, Aguet F, Zou Y, Khramtsova EA, Skol AD, Garrido-Martín D, Reverter F, Brown A, Evans P, Gamazon ER, Payne A, Bonazzola R, Barbeira AN, Hamel AR, Martinez-Perez A, Soria JM, GTEx Consortium, Pierce BL, Stephens M, Eskin E, Dermitzakis ET, Segrè AV, Im HK, Engelhardt BE, Ardlie KG, Montgomery SB, Battle AJ, Lappalainen T, Guigó R, Stranger BE
Science. 2020 369 (6509)

PMID: 32913072 · DOI:10.1126/science.aba3066

Many complex human phenotypes exhibit sex-differentiated characteristics. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences remain largely unknown. We generated a catalog of sex differences in gene expression and in the genetic regulation of gene expression across 44 human tissue sources surveyed by the Genotype-Tissue Expression project (GTEx, v8 release). We demonstrate that sex influences gene expression levels and cellular composition of tissue samples across the human body. A total of 37% of all genes exhibit sex-biased expression in at least one tissue. We identify cis expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) with sex-differentiated effects and characterize their cellular origin. By integrating sex-biased eQTLs with genome-wide association study data, we identify 58 gene-trait associations that are driven by genetic regulation of gene expression in a single sex. These findings provide an extensive characterization of sex differences in the human transcriptome and its genetic regulation.

Copyright © 2020 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

MeSH Terms (15)

Chromosomes, Human, X Disease Epigenesis, Genetic Female Gene Expression Gene Expression Regulation Genetic Variation Genome-Wide Association Study Humans Male Organ Specificity Promoter Regions, Genetic Quantitative Trait Loci Sex Characteristics Sex Factors

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