In 1968 Burkholder and associates (J. Antibiot. (Tokyo)1968, 21, 659-664) isolated the antifungal toxin goniodomin from an unidentified Puerto Rican dinoflagellate and partially characterized its structure. Subsequently, a metabolite of Alexandrium hiranoi was isolated by Murakami et al. from a bloom in Japan and its structure was established (Tetrahedron Lett.1988, 29, 1149-1152). The Japanese substance had strong similarities to Burkholder's but due to uncertainty as to whether it was identical or only similar, Murakami named his toxin goniodomin A. A detailed study of this question now provides compelling evidence that Burkholder's goniodomin is identical to goniodomin A. Morphological characterization of the dinoflagellate suggests that it was the genus Alexandrium but insufficient evidence is available to make a definite identification of the species. This is the only report of goniodomin in the Caribbean region.
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