HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection is associated with poor health outcomes. This study was designed to assess risk factors for and mortality with coinfection before direct-acting antiviral treatment availability in a state with an evolving opioid epidemic. HCV infection was determined from review of the medical record at two clinics serving the majority of people living with HIV (PLWH) in care in Middle Tennessee from 2004 to 2013. Association of potential risk factors with HCV-positivity was assessed using logistic regression. Association of HCV-positivity with mortality was assessed with a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for selected covariates. A total of 3,501 patients were included: 24% female; 51% men who have sex with men; 47% white; 44% African American/black; median age of 38 at their first visit; median most recent CD4 count 502 cells/μL (301-716); and HIV viral load 47 copies/mL (39-605); followed for a median of 3.0 (1-5) years. Prevalence of HCV was 13%. Those with a history of injection drug use (IDU) demonstrated the highest odds of HCV-positivity [odds ratio 12.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) 9.39-17.83]. There were 305 deaths; median age at death was 47 years (40-53). HCV coinfection was associated with greater mortality (hazard ratio 1.61; 95% CI 1.20-2.17; < .001). Among PLWH, HCV coinfection was associated with IDU and an independent predictor of mortality. These results affirm the importance of HCV coinfection and inform interventions targeting the continuum of HCV care, uptake of HCV treatment, and the impact of drug use in this population.