SATB2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry is a sensitive and specific marker of appendiceal and rectosigmoid well differentiated neuroendocrine tumours.

Hoskoppal D, Epstein JI, Gown AM, Arnold Egloff SA, Gordetsky JB, Shi CJ, Giannico GA
Histopathology. 2020 76 (4): 550-559

PMID: 31595536 · DOI:10.1111/his.14012

AIMS - Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NNs) range from well to poorly differentiated and indolent to highly aggressive. The site of origin in metastatic NNs has therapeutic and prognostic implications. SATB2 is a transcriptional regulator involved in osteoblastic and neuronal differentiation and is a sensitive and specific marker of colorectal epithelium. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of SATB2 in NNs from various primary sites and its utility as a marker in determining the site of origin of these neoplasms.

METHODS AND RESULTS - SATB2 immunohistochemistry was performed on 266 NNs, including lung small cell carcinomas (n = 39) and carcinoids (n = 30), bladder (n = 21) and prostate (n = 31) small cell carcinomas, and gastrointestinal (GI)/pancreatic NNs of various primary sites (n = 145) consisting of well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours (WDNET)s (n = 124) and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (PDNEC)s (n = 21). SATB2 was expressed in prostatic (10 of 31, 32%) and bladder (eight of 21, 38%) small cell carcinomas, lung carcinoid tumours (one of 30, 3%), and lung small cell carcinomas (eight of 39, 21%). Among primary GI NNs, SATB2 was expressed in 37 of 124 (30%) WDNETs and four of 21 (19%) PDNECs. Of the former, 15 of 15 (100%) rectal/rectosigmoid and 22 of 22 (100%) appendiceal neoplasms expressed SATB2. Using receiver operator characteristic analysis, SATB2 was a sensitive and specific marker for rectal (100.0%, 80.0%) and appendiceal (100.0%, 84.5%) WDNETs, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS - In summary, SATB2 is a sensitive and specific marker for rectal/rectosigmoid and appendiceal WDNETs, and may represent a useful diagnostic tool when these sites of origin are considered in the differential diagnosis.

© 2019 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

MeSH Terms (11)

Appendiceal Neoplasms Biomarkers, Tumor Colorectal Neoplasms Female Humans Immunohistochemistry Male Matrix Attachment Region Binding Proteins Neuroendocrine Tumors Retrospective Studies Transcription Factors

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