OBJECTIVES - To determine whether synthetic phosphorylated hexa-acyl disaccharides provide antimicrobial protection in clinically relevant models of bacterial infection.
DESIGN - Laboratory study.
SETTING - University laboratory.
SUBJECTS - BALB/c, C57BL/10J, and C57BL/10ScNJ mice.
INTERVENTIONS - Mice were treated with lactated Ringer's (vehicle) solution, monophosphoryl lipid A, or phosphorylated hexa-acyl disaccharides at 48 and 24 hours prior to intraperitoneal Pseudomonas aeruginosa or IV Staphylococcus aureus infection. Leukocyte recruitment, cytokine production, and bacterial clearance were measured 6 hours after P. aeruginosa infection. In the systemic S. aureus infection model, one group of mice was monitored for 14-day survival and another for S. aureus tissue burden at 3 days postinfection. Duration of action for 3-deacyl 6-Acyl phosphorylated hexa-acyl disaccharide was determined at 3, 10, and 14 days using a model of intraperitoneal P. aeruginosa infection. Effect of 3-deacyl 6-Acyl phosphorylated hexa-acyl disaccharide on in vivo leukocyte phagocytosis and respiratory burst was examined. Leukocyte recruitment, cytokine production, and bacterial clearance were measured after P. aeruginosa infection in wild-type and toll-like receptor 4 knockout mice treated with 3-deacyl 6-Acyl phosphorylated hexa-acyl disaccharide or vehicle to assess receptor specificity.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS - During intraperitoneal P. aeruginosa infection, phosphorylated hexa-acyl disaccharides significantly attenuated infection-induced hypothermia, augmented leukocyte recruitment and bacterial clearance, and decreased cytokine production. At 3 days post S. aureus infection, bacterial burden in lungs, spleen, and kidneys was significantly decreased in mice treated with monophosphoryl lipid A or phosphorylated hexa-acyl disaccharides, which was associated with improved survival. Leukocyte phagocytosis and respiratory burst functions were enhanced after treatment with monophosphoryl lipid A or phosphorylated hexa-acyl disaccharides. A time course study showed that monophosphoryl lipid A- and 3-deacyl 6-Acyl phosphorylated hexa-acyl disaccharide-mediated protection against P. aeruginosa lasts for up to 10 days. Partial loss of augmented innate antimicrobial responses was observed in toll-like receptor 4 knockout mice treated with 3-deacyl 6-Acyl phosphorylated hexa-acyl disaccharide.
CONCLUSIONS - Phosphorylated hexa-acyl disaccharides significantly augment resistance against clinically relevant Gram-negative and Gram-positive infections via enhanced leukocyte recruitment, phagocytosis, and respiratory burst functions of innate leukocytes. Improved antimicrobial protection persists for up to 10 days and is partially mediated through toll-like receptor 4.