OBJECTIVE - We describe the risk factors for peri-procedural and spontaneous arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) in children with cardiac disease.
METHODS - We identified children with cardiac causes of AIS enrolled in the International Pediatric Stroke Study registry from January 2003 to July 2014. Isolated patent foramen ovale was excluded. Peri-procedural AIS (those occurring during or within 72 hours of cardiac surgery, cardiac catheterization, or mechanical circulatory support) and spontaneous AIS that occurred outside of these time periods were compared.
RESULTS - We identified 672 patients with congenital or acquired cardiac disease as the primary risk factor for AIS. Among these, 177 patients (26%) had peri-procedural AIS and 495 patients (74%) had spontaneous AIS. Among non-neonates, spontaneous AIS occurred at older ages (median 4.2 years, interquartile range 0.97 to 12.4) compared with peri-procedural AIS (median 2.4 years, interquartile range 0.35 to 6.1, P < 0.001). About a third of patients in both groups had a systemic illness at the time of AIS. Patients who had spontaneous AIS were more likely to have a preceding thrombotic event (16 % versus 9 %, P = 0.02) and to have a moderate or severe neurological deficit at discharge (67% versus 33%, P = 0.01) compared to those with peri-procedural AIS.
CONCLUSIONS - Children with cardiac disease are at risk for AIS at the time of cardiac procedures but also outside of the immediate 72 hours after procedures. Many have acute systemic illness or thrombotic event preceding AIS, suggesting that inflammatory or prothrombotic conditions could act as a stroke trigger in this susceptible population.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.