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Non-canonical roles for metabolic enzymes and intermediates in malignant progression and metastasis.

Williams D, Fingleton B
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2019 36 (3): 211-224

PMID: 31073762 · PMCID: PMC6538276 · DOI:10.1007/s10585-019-09967-0

Metabolic alterations are established as a hallmark of cancer. Such hallmark changes in cancer metabolism are characterized by reprogramming of energy-producing pathways and increases in the generation of biosynthetic intermediates to meet the needs of rapidly proliferating tumor cells. Various metabolic phenotypes such as aerobic glycolysis, increased glutamine consumption, and lipolysis have also been associated with the process of metastasis. However, in addition to the energy and biosynthetic alterations, a number of secondary functions of enzymes and metabolites are emerging that specifically contribute to metastasis. Here, we describe atypical intracellular roles of metabolic enzymes, extracellular functions of metabolic enzymes, roles of metabolites as signaling molecules, and epigenetic regulation mediated by altered metabolism, all of which can affect metastatic progression. We highlight how some of these mechanisms are already being exploited for therapeutic purposes, and discuss how others show similar potential.

MeSH Terms (12)

ATP Citrate (pro-S)-Lyase Disease Progression Energy Metabolism Fatty Acids Glucose Glucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase Glutaminase Glutamine Humans Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Neoplasm Metastasis Neoplasms

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