Early life stress, cortisol, frontolimbic connectivity, and depressive symptoms during puberty.

Kircanski K, Sisk LM, Ho TC, Humphreys KL, King LS, Colich NL, Ordaz SJ, Gotlib IH
Dev Psychopathol. 2019 31 (3): 1011-1022

PMID: 31064568 · PMCID: PMC6688476 · DOI:10.1017/S0954579419000555

Early life stress (ELS) is a risk factor for the development of depression in adolescence; the mediating neurobiological mechanisms, however, are unknown. In this study, we examined in early pubertal youth the associations among ELS, cortisol stress responsivity, and white matter microstructure of the uncinate fasciculus and the fornix, two key frontolimbic tracts; we also tested whether and how these variables predicted depressive symptoms in later puberty. A total of 208 participants (117 females; M age = 11.37 years; M Tanner stage = 2.03) provided data across two or more assessment modalities: ELS; salivary cortisol levels during a psychosocial stress task; diffusion magnetic resonance imaging; and depressive symptoms. In early puberty there were significant associations between higher ELS and decreased cortisol production, and between decreased cortisol production and increased fractional anisotropy in the uncinate fasciculus. Further, increased fractional anisotropy in the uncinate fasciculus predicted higher depressive symptoms in later puberty, above and beyond earlier symptoms. In post hoc analyses, we found that sex moderated several additional associations. We discuss these findings within a broader conceptual model linking ELS, emotion dysregulation, and depression across the transition through puberty, and contend that brain circuits implicated in the control of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function should be a focus of continued research.

MeSH Terms (16)

Adolescent Depression Emotions Female Frontal Lobe Humans Hydrocortisone Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System Limbic System Male Nerve Net Pituitary-Adrenal System Puberty Saliva Stress, Psychological White Matter

Connections (1)

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