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PDA-TOLERATE Trial: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Trial of Treatment of Moderate-to-Large Patent Ductus Arteriosus at 1 Week of Age.

Clyman RI, Liebowitz M, Kaempf J, Erdeve O, Bulbul A, Håkansson S, Lindqvist J, Farooqi A, Katheria A, Sauberan J, Singh J, Nelson K, Wickremasinghe A, Dong L, Hassinger DC, Aucott SW, Hayashi M, Heuchan AM, Carey WA, Derrick M, Fernandez E, Sankar M, Leone T, Perez J, Serize A, PDA-TOLERATE (PDA: TO LEave it alone or Respond And Treat Early) Trial Investigators
J Pediatr. 2019 205: 41-48.e6

PMID: 30340932 · PMCID: PMC6502709 · DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.09.012

OBJECTIVE - To compare early routine pharmacologic treatment of moderate-to-large patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) at the end of week 1 with a conservative approach that requires prespecified respiratory and hemodynamic criteria before treatment can be given.

STUDY DESIGN - A total of 202 neonates of <28 weeks of gestation age (mean, 25.8 ± 1.1 weeks) with moderate-to-large PDA shunts were enrolled between age 6 and 14 days (mean, 8.1 ± 2.2 days) into an exploratory randomized controlled trial.

RESULTS - At enrollment, 49% of the patients were intubated and 48% required nasal ventilation or continuous positive airway pressure. There were no differences between the groups in either our primary outcome of ligation or presence of a PDA at discharge (early routine treatment [ERT], 32%; conservative treatment [CT], 39%) or any of our prespecified secondary outcomes of necrotizing enterocolitis (ERT, 16%; CT, 19%), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (ERT, 49%; CT, 53%), BPD/death (ERT, 58%; CT, 57%), death (ERT,19%; CT, 10%), and weekly need for respiratory support. Fewer infants in the ERT group met the rescue criteria (ERT, 31%; CT, 62%). In secondary exploratory analyses, infants receiving ERT had significantly less need for inotropic support (ERT, 13%; CT, 25%). However, among infants who were ≥26 weeks gestational age, those receiving ERT took significantly longer to achieve enteral feeding of 120 mL/kg/day (median: ERT, 14 days [range, 4.5-19 days]; CT, 6 days [range, 3-14 days]), and had significantly higher incidences of late-onset non-coagulase-negative Staphylococcus bacteremia (ERT, 24%; CT,6%) and death (ERT, 16%; CT, 2%).

CONCLUSIONS - In preterm infants age <28 weeks with moderate-to-large PDAs who were receiving respiratory support after the first week, ERT did not reduce PDA ligations or the presence of a PDA at discharge and did not improve any of the prespecified secondary outcomes, but delayed full feeding and was associated with higher rates of late-onset sepsis and death in infants born at ≥26 weeks of gestation.

TRIAL REGISTRATION - ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01958320.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

MeSH Terms (16)

Acetaminophen Conservative Treatment Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Ductus Arteriosus, Patent Female Gestational Age Humans Ibuprofen Indomethacin Infant, Extremely Premature Infant, Newborn Male Prospective Studies Single-Blind Method Treatment Outcome

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