Evidence for the Role of the Cecal Microbiome in Maintenance of Immune Regulation and Homeostasis.

Chhabra P, Spano AJ, Bowers D, Ren T, Moore DJ, Timko MP, Wu M, Brayman KL
Ann Surg. 2018 268 (3): 541-549

PMID: 29994931 · DOI:10.1097/SLA.0000000000002930

OBJECTIVE (S) - Our objective was to investigate alterations in the cecal microbial composition during the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) with or without IgM therapy, and correlate these alterations with the corresponding immune profile.

METHODS - (1) Female nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice treated with IgM or saline (n = 20/group) were divided into 5-week-old nondiabetic; 9 to 12-week-old prehyperglycemic stage-1; ≥13-week-old prehyperglycemic stage-2; and diabetic groups. 16S rRNA libraries were prepared from bacterial DNA and deep-sequenced. (2) New-onset diabetic mice were treated with IgM (200 μg on Days 1, 3, and 5) and their blood glucose monitored for 2 months.

RESULTS - Significant dysbiosis was observed in the cecal microbiome with the progression of T1D development. The alteration in microbiome composition was characterized by an increase in the bacteroidetes:firmicutes ratio. In contrast, IgM conserved normal bacteroidetes:firmicutes ratio and this effect was long-lasting. Furthermore, oral gavage using cecal content from IgM-treated mice significantly diminished the incidence of diabetes compared with controls, indicating that IgM specifically affected mucosa-associated microbes, and that the affect was causal and not an epiphenomenon. Also, regulatory immune cell populations (myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells) were expanded and insulin autoantibody production diminished in the IgM-treated mice. In addition, IgM therapy reversed hyperglycemia in 70% of new-onset diabetic mice (n = 10) and the mice remained normoglycemic for the entire post-treatment observation period.

CONCLUSIONS - The cecal microbiome appears to be important in maintaining immune homeostasis and normal immune responses.

MeSH Terms (11)

Animals Cecum Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 Female Gastrointestinal Microbiome Homeostasis Humans Immunoglobulin M Mice Mice, Inbred NOD

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