BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - Intracerebral hemorrhage is a considerable source of morbidity and mortality. This 3-center study describes outcomes of pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage and identifies 2-year neurological outcome predictors.
METHODS - Children 29 days to 18 years of age presenting with intracerebral hemorrhage from March 2007 to May 2015 were enrolled prospectively. Exclusion criteria included trauma; intracranial tumor; hemorrhagic transformation of arterial ischemic stroke or cerebral sinovenous thrombosis; isolated subdural, epidural, or subarachnoid hemorrhage; and abnormal baseline neurological function. Intracerebral hemorrhage and total brain volumes were measured on neuroimaging. The Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure assessed outcomes.
RESULTS - Sixty-nine children were included (median age: 9.7 years; interquartile range: 2.2-14). Six children (9%) died during hospitalization. Outcomes in survivors were assessed at early follow-up in 98% (median 3.1 months; interquartile range: 3.1-3.8) and at later follow-up in 94% (median: 2.1 years; interquartile range: 1.3-2.8). Over a third had a significant disability at 2 years (Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure >2). Total Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure score improved over time (=0.0003), paralleling improvements in the sensorimotor subscore (=0.0004). Altered mental status (odds ratio, 13; 95% confidence interval, 3.9-46; <0.001), hemorrhage volume ≥4% of total brain volume (odds ratio, 17; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-156; =0.01), and intensive care unit length of stay (odds ratio, 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.2; =0.002) were significantly associated with poor 2-year outcome.
CONCLUSIONS - Over one third of children experienced significant disability at 2 years. Improvements in outcomes were driven by recovery of sensorimotor function. Altered mental status, hemorrhage volume ≥4% of total brain volume, and intensive care unit length of stay were independent predictors of significant disability at 2 years.
© 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.