Background - Vadadustat, an inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain dioxygenases, is an oral investigational agent in development for the treatment of anemia secondary to chronic kidney disease.
Methods - In this open-label Phase 2 trial, vadadustat was evaluated in 94 subjects receiving hemodialysis, previously maintained on epoetin alfa. Subjects were sequentially assigned to one of three vadadustat dose cohorts by starting dose: 300 mg once daily (QD), 450 mg QD or 450 mg thrice weekly (TIW). The primary endpoint was mean hemoglobin (Hb) change from pre-baseline average to midtrial (Weeks 7-8) and end-of-trial (Weeks 15-16) and was analyzed using available data (no imputation).
Results - Overall, 80, 73 and 68% of subjects in the 300 mg QD, 450 mg QD, and 450 mg TIW dose cohorts respectively, completed the study. For all dose cohorts no statistically significant mean change in Hb from pre-baseline average was observed, and mean Hb concentrations-analyzed using available data-remained stable at mid- and end-of-trial. There was one subject with an Hb excursion >13 g/dL. Overall, 83% of subjects experienced an adverse event (AE); the proportion of subjects who experienced at least one AE was similar among the three dose cohorts. The most frequently reported AEs were nausea (11.7%), diarrhea (10.6%) and vomiting (9.6%). No deaths occurred during the study. No serious AEs were attributed to vadadustat.
Conclusions - Vadadustat maintained mean Hb concentrations in subjects on hemodialysis previously receiving epoetin. These data support further investigation of vadadustat to assess its long-term safety and efficacy in subjects on hemodialysis.