Cellular accumulation and antioxidant activity of acetoxymethoxycarbonyl pyrrolidine nitroxides.

Dikalov SI, Dikalova AE, Morozov DA, Kirilyuk IA
Free Radic Res. 2018 52 (3): 339-350

PMID: 29098905 · PMCID: PMC5915311 · DOI:10.1080/10715762.2017.1390744

Nitroxides are widely used in biology as antioxidants, spin labels, functional spin probes for pH, oxygen and thiol levels, and tissue redox status imaging using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR); however, biological applications of nitroxides is hindered by fast bioreduction to EPR-silent hydroxylamines and rapid clearance. In this work, we have studied pyrrolidine nitroxides with acetoxymethoxycarbonyl groups which can undergo hydrolysis by cellular esterases to hydrophilic carboxylate derivatives resistant to bioreduction. Nitroxides containing acetoxymethoxycarbonyl groups were rapidly absorbed by cells from the media, 3,4-bis-(acetoxymethoxycarbonyl)-proxyl (DCP-AM2) and 3-(2-(bis(2-(acetoxymethoxy)-2-oxoethyl)amino)acetamido)-proxyl (DCAP-AM2) showing the strongest EPR signal of the cellular fraction. Remarkably, the EPR parameters of 3,4-dicarboxy-proxyl (DCP) and its mono- and di-acetoxymethyl esters are different, and consequent intracellular hydrolysis of acetoxymethoxycarbonyl groups in DCP-AM2 can be followed by EPR. To elucidate intracellular location of the resultant DCP, the mitochondrial fraction has been isolated. EPR measurements showed that mitochondria were the main place where DCP was finally accumulated. TEMPO derivatives showed expectedly much faster decay of EPR signal in the cellular fraction, compared to pyrrolidine nitroxides. It was found that supplementation of endothelial cells with 50 nM of DCP-AM2 completely normalised the mitochondrial superoxide level. Moreover, administration of DCP-AM2 to mice (1.4 mg/kg/day) resulted in substantial nitroxide accumulation in the tissues and significantly reduced hypertension. We found that hydroxylamine derivatives of dicarboxyproxyl nitroxide DCP-AM-H can be used for the detection of superoxide in vivo in angiotensin II model of hypertension. Infusion of DCP-AM-H in mice leads to accumulation of persistent EPR signal of nitroxide in the blood and vascular tissue in angiotensin II-infused wild-type but not in SOD2 overexpressing mice. Our data demonstrate that acetoxymethoxycarbonyl group containing nitroxides accumulate in mitochondria and demonstrate site-specific antioxidant activity.

MeSH Terms (5)

Antioxidants Cyclic N-Oxides Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy Mitochondria Nitrogen Oxides

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