Mining 100 million notes to find homelessness and adverse childhood experiences: 2 case studies of rare and severe social determinants of health in electronic health records.

Bejan CA, Angiolillo J, Conway D, Nash R, Shirey-Rice JK, Lipworth L, Cronin RM, Pulley J, Kripalani S, Barkin S, Johnson KB, Denny JC
J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2018 25 (1): 61-71

PMID: 29016793 · PMCID: PMC6080810 · DOI:10.1093/jamia/ocx059

Objective - Understanding how to identify the social determinants of health from electronic health records (EHRs) could provide important insights to understand health or disease outcomes. We developed a methodology to capture 2 rare and severe social determinants of health, homelessness and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), from a large EHR repository.

Materials and Methods - We first constructed lexicons to capture homelessness and ACE phenotypic profiles. We employed word2vec and lexical associations to mine homelessness-related words. Next, using relevance feedback, we refined the 2 profiles with iterative searches over 100 million notes from the Vanderbilt EHR. Seven assessors manually reviewed the top-ranked results of 2544 patient visits relevant for homelessness and 1000 patients relevant for ACE.

Results - word2vec yielded better performance (area under the precision-recall curve [AUPRC] of 0.94) than lexical associations (AUPRC = 0.83) for extracting homelessness-related words. A comparative study of searches for the 2 phenotypes revealed a higher performance achieved for homelessness (AUPRC = 0.95) than ACE (AUPRC = 0.79). A temporal analysis of the homeless population showed that the majority experienced chronic homelessness. Most ACE patients suffered sexual (70%) and/or physical (50.6%) abuse, with the top-ranked abuser keywords being "father" (21.8%) and "mother" (15.4%). Top prevalent associated conditions for homeless patients were lack of housing (62.8%) and tobacco use disorder (61.5%), while for ACE patients it was mental disorders (36.6%-47.6%).

Conclusion - We provide an efficient solution for mining homelessness and ACE information from EHRs, which can facilitate large clinical and genetic studies of these social determinants of health.

© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

MeSH Terms (8)

Adverse Childhood Experiences Child Computational Biology Data Mining Electronic Health Records Homeless Persons Humans Social Determinants of Health

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