OBJECTIVE - Medically refractory epilepsy is a debilitating disorder that is particularly challenging to treat in patients who have already failed a surgical resection. Evidence regarding outcomes of further epilepsy surgery is limited to small case series and reviews. Therefore, our group performed the first quantitative meta-analysis of the literature from the past 30 years to assess for rates and predictors of successful reoperations.
METHODS - A PubMed search was conducted for studies reporting outcomes of repeat epilepsy surgery. Studies were excluded if they reported fewer than five eligible patients or had average follow-ups < 1 year, and patients were excluded from analysis if they received a nonresective intervention. Outcomes were stratified by each variable of interest, and quantitative meta-analysis was performed to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
RESULTS - Seven hundred eighty-two patients who received repeat resective epilepsy surgery from 36 studies were included. Engel I outcome was observed in 47% (n = 369) of patients. Significant predictors of seizure freedom included congruent over noncongruent electrophysiology data (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.6-8.2), lesional over nonlesional epilepsy (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.9-5.3), and surgical limitations over disease-related factors associated with failure of the first surgery (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.3-5.3). Among patients with at least one of these predictors, seizure freedom was achieved in 58%. Conversely, the use of invasive monitoring was associated with worse outcome (OR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2-0.9). Temporal lobe over extratemporal/multilobe resection (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 0.8-3.0) and abnormal over normal preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 0.6-5.4) showed nonsignificant trends toward seizure freedom.
SIGNIFICANCE - This analysis supports considering further resection in patients with intractable epilepsy who continue to have debilitating seizures after an initial surgery, especially in the context of factors predictive of a favorable outcome.
Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.