MYC and MCL1 Cooperatively Promote Chemotherapy-Resistant Breast Cancer Stem Cells via Regulation of Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation.

Lee KM, Giltnane JM, Balko JM, Schwarz LJ, Guerrero-Zotano AL, Hutchinson KE, Nixon MJ, Estrada MV, Sánchez V, Sanders ME, Lee T, Gómez H, Lluch A, Pérez-Fidalgo JA, Wolf MM, Andrejeva G, Rathmell JC, Fesik SW, Arteaga CL
Cell Metab. 2017 26 (4): 633-647.e7

PMID: 28978427 · PMCID: PMC5650077 · DOI:10.1016/j.cmet.2017.09.009

Most patients with advanced triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) develop drug resistance. MYC and MCL1 are frequently co-amplified in drug-resistant TNBC after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Herein, we demonstrate that MYC and MCL1 cooperate in the maintenance of chemotherapy-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs) in TNBC. MYC and MCL1 increased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (mtOXPHOS) and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), processes involved in maintenance of CSCs. A mutant of MCL1 that cannot localize in mitochondria reduced mtOXPHOS, ROS levels, and drug-resistant CSCs without affecting the anti-apoptotic function of MCL1. Increased levels of ROS, a by-product of activated mtOXPHOS, led to the accumulation of HIF-1α. Pharmacological inhibition of HIF-1α attenuated CSC enrichment and tumor initiation in vivo. These data suggest that (1) MYC and MCL1 confer resistance to chemotherapy by expanding CSCs via mtOXPHOS and (2) targeting mitochondrial respiration and HIF-1α may reverse chemotherapy resistance in TNBC.

Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

MeSH Terms (13)

Animals Cell Line, Tumor Drug Resistance, Neoplasm Female Humans Mice, Nude Mitochondria Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein Neoplastic Stem Cells Oxidative Phosphorylation Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc Reactive Oxygen Species Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms

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