Background - Rhinoviruses (RVs) are ubiquitous respiratory pathogens that often cause mild or subclinical infections. Molecular detection of RVs from the upper respiratory tract can be prolonged, complicating etiologic association in persons with severe lower respiratory tract infections. Little is known about RV viremia and its value as a diagnostic indicator in persons hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).
Methods - Sera from RV-positive children and adults hospitalized with CAP were tested for RV by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Rhinovirus species and type were determined by partial genome sequencing.
Results - Overall, 57 of 570 (10%) RV-positive patients were viremic, and all were children aged <10 years (n = 57/375; 15.2%). Although RV-A was the most common RV species detected from respiratory specimens (48.8%), almost all viremias were RV-C (98.2%). Viremic patients had fewer codetected pathogens and were more likely to have chest retractions, wheezing, and a history of underlying asthma/reactive airway disease than patients without viremia.
Conclusions - More than 1 out of 7 RV-infected children aged <10 years hospitalized with CAP were viremic. In contrast with other RV species, RV-C infections were highly associated with viremia and were usually the only respiratory pathogen identified, suggesting that RV-C viremia may be an important diagnostic indicator in pediatric pneumonia.
Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.