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Fetal substantia nigra cells of two different gestational ages were successfully transplanted into the brains of three methylphenyltetrahydropyridine-treated monkeys with severe parkinsonian motor and behavioural deficits. Functional improvement continued for 10 weeks after cell grafts into the striata of two monkeys with substantial numbers of tyrosine-hydroxylase-positive fetal neurons at necropsy. Behavioural improvement was correlated with increases in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) homovanillic acid (HVA) concentrations after the transplants. A control monkey with inappropriately placed transplanted cells of an earlier gestational age remained severely parkinsonian and died during a similar period. CSF HVA fell slightly in this monkey from the low level seen before the transplants. Fetal dopamine neurons of two different gestational ages appear to survive transplantation in primates and have biochemical and functional effects.