The effects of neurotropic compounds on Ca-binding proteins (calmodulin, troponin C) were investigated. It was shown that the majority of neuroleptics of the phenothiazine group effectively interact with the both proteins and inhibit calmodulin-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and Ca2+-activated actomyosin. ATPase. Neuroleptics of the butyrophenone group as well as imipramine and diphenehydramine having a low efficiency interact only with calmodulin. Methophenazine, a phenothiazine neuroleptic, being an effective inhibitor of calmodulin and of calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase, does not influence troponin C or Ca-dependent actomyosin ATPase. Therefore, this compound may be used as a convenient tool in the study of processes controlled by these Ca-binding proteins. It is concluded that troponin C possesses Ca-dependent sites which bind pharmacological agents structurally similar to that of calmodulin. However, these sites bind pharmacological agents with a low efficiency and exhibit selectivity towards certain drugs. Despite the obvious homology of the both Ca-binding proteins, i.e., calmodulin, troponin C, their effects on the processes under their control appear to be selective.