Isoniazid-monoresistant tuberculosis is associated with poor treatment outcomes in Durban, South Africa.

van der Heijden YF, Karim F, Mufamadi G, Zako L, Chinappa T, Shepherd BE, Maruri F, Moosa MS, Sterling TR, Pym AS
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2017 21 (6): 670-676

PMID: 28482962 · PMCID: PMC5536436 · DOI:10.5588/ijtld.16.0843

SETTING - A large tuberculosis (TB) clinic in Durban, South Africa.

OBJECTIVE - To determine the association between isoniazid (INH) monoresistant TB and treatment outcomes.

DESIGN - We performed a retrospective longitudinal study of patients seen from 2000 to 2012 to compare episodes of INH-monoresistant TB with those of drug-susceptible TB using logistic regression with robust standard errors. INH-monoresistant TB was treated with modified regimens.

RESULTS - Among 18 058 TB patients, there were 19 979 TB episodes for which drug susceptibility testing was performed. Of these, 557 were INH-monoresistant and 16 311 were drug-susceptible. Loss to follow-up, transfer, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection (41% had known HIV status) were similar between groups. INH-monoresistant episodes were more likely to result in treatment failure (4.1% vs. 0.6%, P < 0.001) and death (3.2% vs. 1.8%, P = 0.01) than drug-susceptible episodes. After adjustment for age, sex, race, retreatment status, and disease site, INH-monoresistant episodes were more likely to have resulted in treatment failure (OR 6.84, 95%CI 4.29-10.89, P < 0.001) and death (OR 1.81, 95%CI 1.11-2.95, P = 0.02).

CONCLUSION - INH monoresistance was associated with worse clinical outcomes than drug-susceptible TB. Our findings support the need for rapid diagnostic tests for INH resistance and improved treatment regimens for INH-monoresistant TB.

MeSH Terms (17)

Adult Antitubercular Agents Drug Resistance, Bacterial Female HIV Infections Humans Isoniazid Logistic Models Longitudinal Studies Male Microbial Sensitivity Tests Mycobacterium tuberculosis Retrospective Studies South Africa Treatment Failure Treatment Outcome Tuberculosis

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